One of most characteristics of the nature of the country - broad development of volcanic and seismic processes, and also modern movements of the sushi caused by that Italy is located in a zone of a young Alpine skladchatost.
Natural resources of the Alps are also comprehensively used long ago by the person. It is enough to remember at least the large supplies of energy containing in the Alpine rivers about numerous climatic and ski resorts, about production of construction materials. The person long since lodged in picturesque Alpine valleys with their fertile climate, and now there are a lot of cities (Aosta, Sondrio, Bolzano, etc.)
The Mediterranean climate is distinctly expressed in the south of the Apenninsky peninsula and on islands. Summer here dry and hot (average temperature of July - + 26), winter soft, warm (average temperature of January - + 8-10). In northern and central parts of the Apenninsky peninsula average temperatures others - + 24 in July and + 1,4-4 in January. Snow on the Apenninsky peninsula drops out very seldom. From March to October in the south of Italy blows - the dry and hot wind from Africa bringing temperature increase to + 30-35 and reddish dust.
Italy - the only country on the continent where there are volcanoes of different types and in different stages of development. There are also extinct volcanoes (Evganeysky hills, Albansky mountains), and acting (Etna, Vesuvius, Stromboli).
Quite monotonous landscape denselypopulated and almost entirely the plain cultivated by Padanska is recovered oak here and there, is more rare - birch or pine groves. Avenues of poplars, willows, white acacias border roads, coast of channels and the rivers.
They are replaced by the Alpine meadows. Especially the Alps are famous for rich and juicy mountain meadows. Mountain meadows are used as summer pastures. Above mountain meadows to the tops or glaciers slopes are covered with mosses and lichens. In the Apennines more often than in the Alps, naked slopes - result of deforestation, an erosion and landslides come across.
Considerable participation in the Italian economy, especially in economy of the Southern Italy, accepts the foreign, mainly the USA, and Switzerland. The most part of capital investments is attracted by oil processing and petrochemistry, a (especially and electronic industry) and a services sector.
Such problems as high rates of inflation, increase in prices, life costs, unemployment, deep and territorial disproportions, first of all disproportionate Northern and Southern Itayoliya's developments are sharp.
Energy resources of Italy satisfy her needs for energy only for 15%. In Sardinia, Tuscany, Umbria, Calabria there are fields of brown and low-quality coal. Limited oil stocks on the island of Sicily, the Padansky plain and on east coast of the Central Italy provide less than 2% of need of Italy for oil. Are very important for national economy of a natural gas field of the Padansky plain and its underwater continuation - the continental shelf of the Adriatic Sea, and also natural gas is found in the Northern, Central and the Southern Apennines and on Sicily.
On coastal lowlands of the Apenninsky peninsula and islands a wide strip evergreen trees and bushes last. From wild-growing types evergreen stone and pith oaks, stone pines and the Alpine pines, mastic trees, palm trees, cactuses, agaves are allocated here. However cultural types, first of all subtropical - a citrus, olives almonds, pomegranate, a fig, groves of a pith oak got by the person prevail here.
The Apennines are very various on the geological structure and a relief. Mountains in Tuscany, the central Apennines, Campaign and Brazilikat are put by conglomerates, sandstones and limestones, and also clay slates and marble. To the south in Calabria they are put by ancient izverzhenny and metamorphic breeds. The same breeds are characteristic and for the mountains of Sicily and Sardinia.
The coastline of Italy is a little dismembered, it is not enough convenient bays. Almost all large ports are built artificially. Only in the Southern Italy there are ports in natural bays and gulfs (Naples, Salerno, Taranto, Cagliari).