In all set of the works connected with protection of the environment and rational exploitation of natural resources to allocate the main directions of creation of small and productions. Treat them a complex of raw material and energy resources; existing and development of essentially new processes and productions and the corresponding ; introduction water - and gas-reverse cycles (on the basis of gazo-and water treatment a method; cooperation of production with use of waste of one productions as raw materials for others and creation of waste-free TPK.
It is necessary to refer the requirement of restriction of impact of production of the surrounding natural and social environment taking into account the systematic and purposeful growth of its volumes and ecological perfection to not less important principles of creation of a waste-free. This principle first of all is connected with preservation of such natural and social resources, as atmospheric air, water, an earth surface, resources, health of the population. It is necessary to emphasize that the of this principle is feasible only in combination with the monitoring developed ecological and multilink management of environmental management.
the fastest development and deployment of new progressive low-waste and waste-free processes, meaning and beskoksovy processes of receiving became, a powder, autogenous processes in nonferrous metallurgy and the perspective technological processes directed on reduction of emissions in environment;
at production and processing of ores of ferrous and non-ferrous metals — widespread introduction of use of large-tonnage dump solid waste of mountain and concentrating production as construction materials, a laying of the developed space of mines, pavings, wall blocks etc. instead of specially got mineral resources;
Production wastes — it is the remains of raw materials, materials,, chemical compounds formed at production or performance of work (to an usl and in whole or in part initial consumer. Consumption waste — the products and materials which lost the consumer properties as a result of physical or an obsolescence.
In process of development of modern production with its and growth rates the increasing relevance is by problems of development and deployment of small and waste-free technologies. Their fastest decision in a number of the countries is considered as the strategic direction of rational use of natural resources and environmental protection.
In the coal industry the production coefficient is entered: Kbp = 33 * (Kbt + Kbzh + KB, where Kbt, Kbzh, Kbg — efficiency according to breed, at mining operations, in passing taken away water at coal mining ( and uses of pylegazovy waste.
In ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy at creation of new and reconstruction of the operating productions the of the waste-free and low-waste technological processes providing economical, rational use of raw materials is necessary:
Possibly, as a first approximation for practical purposes value of coefficient of wastelessness (or coefficient), equal 75% and above, it is possible to accept as criterion of low-waste, and 95% — waste-free production and in some other material-intensive branches of economy. Thus, certainly, the of waste has to be considered.
At a modern level of development of science and equipment without loss it is practically impossible to manage. As the technology of selective division and a of various substances, losses will constantly.
In mining industry it is necessary: to introduce technologies on full recycling, both at, and at an underground way of mining; to apply geotechnological methods of development of of minerals more widely, aspiring thus to an on a terrestrial surface only of target components; to use waste-free methods of enrichment and processing of raw materials on a place of its production; to apply hydrometallurgical methods of processing of ores more widely.
About 80 billion t are saved up for territories of the country in dumps and storages. solid waste, thus are withdrawn from economic circulation of one hundred thousands hectares of lands; waste in dumps, tailings dams and dumps by sources of pollution of surface and underground water, atmospheric air, soils and plants.